It seems that everyone and their granny is trying to create some sort of stack offering these days. Look at all the brouhaha – HP buying 3Par, Dell buying Compellent, all kinds of partnerships being formed left and right. Stacks are hot.
To the uninitiated, a stack is what you can get when a vendor is able to offer multiple products under a single umbrella. For instance, being able to get servers, an OS, a DB, an email system, storage and network switches from a single manufacturer (not a VAR) is an example of a single-sourced stack.
The proponents of stacks maintain that with stacks, customers potentially get simpler service and better integration – a single support number to call, “one throat to choke”, no finger-pointing between vendors. And that’s partially true. A stack potentially provides simpler access to support. On the “better integration” part – read on.
My main problem with stacks is that nobody really offers a complete stack, and those that are more complete than others, don’t necessarily offer best-of-breed products (not even “good enough”), nor do they offer particularly great integration between the products within the stack.
Personal anecdote: a few years ago I had the (mis)fortune of being the primary backup and recovery architect for one of the largest airlines in the world. Said airline had a very close relationship with a certain famous vendor. Said vendor only flew with that airline, always bought business class seats, the airline gave the vendor discounts, the vendor gave the airline discounts, and in general there was a lot of mutual back-scratching going on. So much so that the airline would give that vendor business before looking at anyone else, and only considered alternative vendors if the primary vendor didn’t have anything that even smelled like what the airline was looking for.
All of which resulted in the airline getting a backup system that was designed for small businesses since that’s all that vendor had to offer (and still does).
The problem is, that backup product simply could not scale to what I needed it to. I ended up having to stop file-level logging and could only restore entire directories since the backup database couldn’t handle the load, despite me running multiple instances of the tool for multiple environments. Some of those directories were pretty large, so you can imagine the hilarity that ensued when trying to restore stuff…
The vendor’s crack development team came over from overseas and spent days with me trying to figure out what they needed to change about the product to make it work in my environment (I believe it was the single largest installation they had).
Problem is, they couldn’t deliver soon enough, so, after much pain, the airline moved to a proper enterprise backup system from another vendor, which fixed most problems, given the technology I had to work with at the time.
Had the right decision been made up front, none of that pain would have been experienced. The world would have been one IT anecdote short, but that’s a small price to pay for a working environment. And this is but just one way that single vendor stacks can fail.
How does one decide on a stack?
Let’s examine a high-level view of a few stack offerings. By no means an all-inclusive list.
Microsoft: They offer an OS (catering from servers to phones), a virtualization engine, a DB, a mail system, a backup tool and the most popular office apps in the world, among many other things. Few will argue that all the bits are best-of-breed, despite being hugely popular. Microsoft doesn’t like playing in the hardware space, so they’re a pure software stack. Oh, there’s the XBox, too.
EMC: Various kinds of storage platforms (7-10 depending on how you count), all but one (Symmetrix) coming from acquisition. A virtualization engine (80% owner of VMware – even though it’s run as a totally separate entity). DB, many kinds of backup, document management, security and all other kinds of software. Some bits are very strong, others not so much.
Oracle: They offer an OS, a virtualization engine, a DB, middleware, servers and storage. An office suite. No networking. Oracle is a good example of an incomplete software/hardware stack. Aside from the ultra-strong DB and good OS, few will say their products are all best-of-breed.
Dell: They offer servers desktops, laptops, phones, various flavors of storage, switches. Dell is an example of a pure hardware stack. Not many software aspirations here. Few will claim any of their products are best-of-breed.
HP: They offer servers desktops, laptops, phones, even more flavors of storage, a UNIX OS with its own type of virtualization (can’t run x86), switches, backup software, a big services arm, printers, calculators… All in all, great servers, calculators and printers, not so sure about the rest. Fairly complete stack.
IBM: Servers, 2 strong DBs, at least 3 different OSes, CPUs, many kinds of storage, email system, middleware, backup software, immense services arm. No x86 virtualization (they do offer virtualization for their other platforms). Very complete stack, albeit without networking.
Cisco: All kinds of networking (including telephony), servers. Limited stack if networking is not your bag, but what it offers can be pretty good.
Apple: Desktops, laptops, phones, tablets, networking gear, software. Great example of a consumer-oriented hardware and software stack. They used to offer storage and servers but they exited that business.
Notice anything common about the various single-vendor stacks? Did you find a stack that can truly satisfy all your IT needs without giving anything up?
The fact of the matter is that none of the above companies, as formidable as they are, offers a complete stack – software and hardware. You can get some of the way there, but it’s next to impossible to single-source everything without shooting yourself in the foot. At a minimum, you’re probably looking at some kind of Microsoft stack + server/storage stack + networking stack – mixing a minimum of 3 different vendors to get what you need without sacrificing much (the above example assumes you either don’t want to virtualize or are OK with Hyper-V).
Most companies have something like this: Microsoft stack + virtualization + DB + server + storage + networking – 6 total stacks.
So why do people keep pushing single-vendor stacks?
Only a few valid reasons (aside from it being fashionable to talk about). One of them is control – the more stuff you have from a company, the tighter their hold on you. The other is that it at least limits the support points you have to deal with, and can potentially get you better pricing (theoretically). For instance, Dell has “given away” many an Equallogic box. Guess what – the cost of that box was blended into everything else you purchased, it’s all a shell game. But if someone does buy a lot of gear from a single vendor, there are indeed ways to get better deals. You just won’t necessarily get best-of-breed or even good enough gear.
What about integration?
One would think that buying as much as possible from a single vendor gets you better integration between the bits. Not necessarily. For instance, most large vendors acquire various technologies and/or have OEM deals – if one looks just at storage as an example, Dell has their own storage (Equallogic and Compellent – two different acquisitions) plus an OEM deal with EMC. There’s not much synergy between the various technologies.
HP has their own storage (EVA, Lefthand, Ibrix, Polyserve, 3Par – four different acquisitions) and two OEM deals with Dot Hill for the MSA boxes and HDS for the high-end XP systems. That’s a lot of storage tin to keep track of (all of which comes from 7 different places and 7 totally different codebases), and any HP management software needs to be able to work with all of those boxes (and doesn’t).
IBM has their own storage (XIV, DS6000, DS8000, SONAS, SVC – I believe three homegrown and two acquisitions) and two different OEM deals (NetApp for N Series and LSI Logic for DS5000 and below). The integration between those products and the rest of the IBM landscape should be examined on a case-by-case basis.
EMC’s challenge is that they have acquired too much stuff, making it difficult to provide proper integration for everything. Supporting and developing for that plethora of systems is not easy and teams end up getting fragmented and inconsistent. Far too many codebases to keep track of. This dilutes the R&D dollars available and prolongs development cycles.
Aren’t those newfangled special-purpose multi-vendor stacks better?
There’s another breed of stack, the special-purpose one where a third party combines gear from different vendors, assembles it and sells it as a supported and pre-packaged solution for a specific application. Such stacks are actually not new – they have been sold for military, industrial and healthcare applications for the longest time. Recently, Netapp and EMC have been promoting different versions of what a “virtualization stack” should be (as usual, with very different approaches, check out FlexPod and Vblock).
The idea behind the “virtualization stack” is that you sell the customer a rack that has inside it network gear, servers, storage, management and virtualization software. Then, all the customer has to do is load up the gear with VMs and off they go.
With such a stack, you don’t limit the customer by making them buy their gear all from one vendor, but instead you limit them by pre-selecting vendors that are “best of breed”. Not everyone will be OK with the choice of gear, of course.
Then there’s the issue of flexibility – some of the special-purpose stacks literally are like black boxes – you are not supposed to modify them or you lose support. To the point where you’re not allowed to add RAM to servers or storage to arrays, both limitations that annoy most customers, but are viewed as a positive by some.
Is it a product or a “kit”?
Back to the virtualization-specific stacks: This is the main argument, do you buy a ready-made “product” or a “kit” some third party assembles after following a detailed design guide. As of this writing (there have been multiple changes to how this is marketed), Vblock is built by a company known as VCE – efectively a third party that puts together a custom stack made of different kinds of EMC storage, Cisco switches and servers, VMware, and a management tool called UIM. It is not built by EMC, VMware or Cisco. VCE then resells the assembled system to other VARs or directly to customers.
NetApp’s FlexPod is built by VARs. The difference is that more than one VAR can build FlexPods (as long as they meet some specific criteria) and don’t need to involve a middleman (also translating to more profits for VARs). All VARs building FlexPods need to follow specific guidelines to build the product (jointly designed by VMware, Cisco and NetApp), use components and firmware tested and certified to work together, and add best-of-breed management software to manage the stack.
The FlexPod emphasis is on sizing and performance flexibility (from tiny to gigantic), Secure Multi Tenancy (SMT – a unique differentiator), space efficiency, application integration, extreme resiliency and network/workload isolation – all highly important features in virtualized environments. In addition, it supports non-virtualized workloads.
Ultimately, in both cases the customer ends up with a pre-built and pre-tested product.
What about support?
This has been both the selling point and the drawback of such multi-vendor stacks. In my opinion, it has been the biggest selling point for Vblock, since a customer calls VCE for support. VCE has support staff that is trained on Cisco, VMware and EMC and can handle many support cases via a single support number – obviously a nice feature.
Where this breaks down a bit: VCE has to engage VMware, EMC and Cisco for anything that’s serious. Furthermore, Vblock support doesn’t support the entire stack but stops at the hypervisor.
For instance, if a customer hits an Enginuity (Symmetrix OS) bug, then the EMC Symm team will have to be engaged, and possibly write a patch for the customer and communicate with the customer. VCE support simply cannot fix such issues, and is best viewed as first-level support. Same goes for Cisco or VMware bugs, and in general deeper support issues that the VCE support staff simply isn’t trained enough to resolve. In addition, Vblocks can be based on several different kinds of EMC storage, that itself requires different teams to support it.
Finally – ask VCE if they are legally responsible for maintaining the support SLAs. For instance, who is responsible if there is a serious problem with the array and the vendor takes 2 days to respond instead of 30 minutes?
FlexPod utilizes a cooperative support model between NetApp, Cisco and VMware, and cases are dealt with by experts from all three companies working in concert. The first company to be called owns the case.
When the going gets tough, both approaches work similarly. For easy cases that can be resolved by the actual VCE support personnel, Vblock probably has an edge.
Who needs the virtualization stack?
I see several kinds of customers that have a need for such a stack (combinations are possible):
- The technically/time constrained. For them, it might be easier to get a somewhat pre-integrated solution. That way they can get started more quickly.
- The customers needing to hide behind contracts for legal/CYA reasons.
- The large. They need such huge amounts of servers and storage, and so frequently, that they simply don’t have the time to put it in themselves, let alone do the testing. They don’t even have time to have a PS team come onsite and build it. They just want to buy large, ready-to-go chunks, shipped as ready to use as possible.
- The rapidly growing.
- Anyone wanting pre-tested, repeatable and predictable configurations.
Interesting factoid for the #3 case (large customer): They typically need extensive customizations and most of the time would prefer custom-built infrastructure pods with the exact configuration and software they need. For instance, some customers might prefer certain management software over others, and/or want systems to come preconfigured with some of their own customizations in-place – but they are still looking for the packaged product experience. FlexPod is flexible enough to allow that without deviating from the design. Of course, if the customer wants to dramatically deviate (i.e. not use one of the main components like Cisco switches or servers, for instance) – then it stops being a FlexPod and you’re back to building systems the traditional way.
What customers should really be looking for when building a stack?
In my opinion, customers should be looking for a more end-to-end experience.
You see – even with the virtualization stack in place, you will need to add:
- File Services
- Document Management
- etc etc.
You should partner with someone that can help you not just with the storage/virtualization/server/network stack, but also with:
- Proper alignment of VMs to maintain performance
- Application-level integration
- Application protection
- Application acceleration
In essense, treat things holistically. The vendor that provides your virtualization stack needs to be able to help you all the way to, say, configuring Exchange properly so it doesn’t break best practices, and ensuring that firmware revs on the hardware don’t clash with, say, software patch levels.
You still won’t avoid support complexity. Sure, maybe you can have Microsoft do a joint support exercise with the hardware stack VAR, but, no matter how you package it, you are going to be touching the support of the various vendors making up the entire stack.
And you know what?